Языки и литературы тюркских народов

29 Karaims, an ethnic group adhering to Karaite Judaism, are an in- teresting member of peoples speaking a Turkic language. The Karaim language was and is spoken in Crimea, Ukraine, Poland and Lithu- anian among the Karaims of Turkic origin. According to the classi- fication of Turkic languages, Karaim belongs to the ethnic Kipchak group, and to the Northern or North-Western group of Turkic lan- guages according to geographical disposition. Karaim is one of the endangered languages of the world that might go extinct soon. Al- though Karaims and their language have been studied extensively by Russian and Western turcologists, it would be unfair not to mention the research done in Turkey. We can find first studies done in Turkey on Karaims and their lan- guage in the beginning of the 20 th century. However, most of those first studies were dedicated to the Karaite faith and the Karaims of Istanbul. In the first years of the Turkish Republic some materials on the Karaims were published, informing the Turkish public about this topic. An article named Kırım Karay Türkleri (The Karaim Turks of Crimea) by Sereya Şapşal, a Karaim Turk himself, published in the Türk Yılı journal is one of the most important studies published in Turkey. The topic of the Karaim people and their language lost its popularity in Turkey in the beginning of the 20th century, but this topic has regained traction in the end of the last century and in recent years as well. The goal of this report is to first of all present previous studies on Karaims and their language done in Turkey, and then classify cur- rent studies. A discussion on things that must be done for the highly endangered Karaim language will be proposed as well. F. Ebata A new analysis on Sakha (Yakut) “dual” marking Sakha hortative has two sets of forms. The forms in the right con- tain the suffix -(i)ŋ (Table 1). These two sets are described as the op- position between inclusive and exclusive or between dual and plural in the literature. As a matter of fact, the dual/plural distinction is the appropriate explanation, because the hortative without the suffix -(i)